Case study on cardiovascular system study

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Top studentshare.Homer is a 58 year old male Caucasian who farms in the community. He seeks treatment in the clinic today for complaints of weakness.

Homer states that for the past two weeks he has not had any pep and that he feels too tired to finish chores. His past history includes COPD and hypertension. Homer denies chest pain or shortness of breath.

Case Study 1.1 The Cardiovascular System

Homer has brought his current medications with him, which include: ASA 81 mg daily, Hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg daily, and Aloe Latex oral herbal. He states to take a swig of Aloe daily for my stomach. Homer denies any allergies to medications. A physical assessment reveals Homers vital signs: T His heart rate is irregular and an EKG demonstrates atrial fibrillation with a rate of bpm. The provider admits Homer to the hospital medical telemetry unit.

Standard orders are written for blood tests and cardiac monitoring. His current medications are to continue while he is hospitalized, along with: Digoxin 0. Homers lab values are: Hemoglobin 14 After the fourth dose of digoxin intravenously, Homers heart rate drops to 45 bpm, sinus bradycardia with occasional PVCs.

case study on cardiovascular system study

He is complaining of nausea and states to feel sicker than when I came in. Instructions: Please prepare and submit a paper pages [total] in length not including APA format answering the questions below.

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Please support your position with examples. Owing to the small amount of information that has already been provided for the case study, it is challenging to specifically predict the cause of Mr. However, treatment history clearly exhibits that he had previously been treated for COPD and hypertension.

Worsening cases of these illnesses could be a major cause of weaknesses experienced by the patient Blackburn, However, among the main signs and symptoms of COPD are shortness of breath and chest pains, which the patient denies.

Cardiovascular Case Study Analysis

Similarly, among the main signs and symptoms of hypertension include chest pains and difficulty in breathing which the patient denies. However, his current medication shows possible cardiovascular illnesses. It is also important that weakness is one of the signs of a number of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, COPD, heart arrhythmias among others Siewe, Top Development Courses.

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case study on cardiovascular system study

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Now studentshare. Generally, any accredited degree offered by an institution of higher education certified as such within in a major country will be recognized as a valid degree. Online degrees are relatively new in higher education, and still evolving. Yes, it is possible to get a job using online courses. Online courses are sometimes better than the traditional course and even better when both of them work parallel. In this way, we can cop up with different types of field in the same and can expand our knowledge at a better extent.

Scholarships are offered by a wide array of organizations, companies, civic organizations and even small businesses. Some scholarships require students to meet specific criteria, such as a certain grade point average or extracurricular interest.This is my question for the case study: Case Study 2 - Greta Balodis One of Greta's close friends from the Latvian club has a daughter who is a second year student nurse. Greta has given her permission for you to use her as an example.

Please explain the pathophysiology of a Cerebro Vascular Accident stroke and how it affects the central nervous system using the correct medical and nursing terminology. You need to provide a clear understanding of the 2 signs and symptoms and link them clearly with your case study 4. Interested in Academic Writing? She is a 75year old female.

Case Presentation: Heart Disease and Intervention (ALPANA SENAPATI, DO)

She is suffering from right cerebral vascular accident CVA and atrial fibrillation. She has a past medical history of trans-ischaemic attack TIAHypertension and three falls in last six months. She also had history of appendectomy done ina family history of the death of her sister who died of breast cancer in Recently, while gardening, Greta has a sudden headache, dizziness and nausea for which she was diagnosed with right sided cerebral vascular accident CVA and atrial fibrillation.

In this case study, I will present the anatomy and physiology, pathophysiology, definition, signs and symptoms and treatment of CVA. Anatomy and physiology of Cerebral vascular accident CVA The Central Nervous System and the whole body: The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system that regulates the entire bodily function.

Case Study: 60-Year-Old Female Presenting With Shortness of Breath

It comprises of brain, and spinal cord as the main organs that serves as the anatomical and functional centre which directly or indirectly controls, or at least influences, nearly every organ in the body. The central nervous system functions and coordinates the whole body system by bringing all the activities of the body system together and regulating them smoothly.

It brings all the information together, makes decisions based on regarding the previously stored information making a proper sense of the information.

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It is responsible for performing the complex integrative functions of human language, consciousness, learning, perceiving, thinking and memory enabling us to adapt to situations that less complex organisms could not Cerebrovascular accident CVA also refer to as stroke, is a common cerebrovascular disorder affecting the central nervous system. It refers to the condition when the normal blood supply to the brain and spinal cord is affected due to any vascular abnormalities Pellicop.

Stroke which interrupts blood flow to an area of the brain can be fatal sometimes. The types are:. Haemorrhagic stroke: bleeding occurs in the brain tissue due to rupture of a cerebral artery. Ischaemic stroke caused by atherosclerosis: blockage of an artery due to progressive thickening of its wallsresulting obstruction of blood supply to the brain.

Ischaemic stroke caused by embolism: blockage of an artery due to blood clots or embolus Better Health Channel Definition of Cerebrovascular Accident Stroke A Cerebrovascular accident is the medical term for a stroke. It is a condition of sudden onset of one or more neurological deficits which occurs resulting from the interruption of blood flow to a part of the brain resulting in reduced cerebral blood supply Pellicop. In CVA, the damaged part of the brain determines which cerebral artery is affected.

Nevertheless, damage for the cerebellum and brainstem can be severe. Loss of brainstem functions will also affect the autonomic control Question: This is my question for the case study: Case Study 2 - Greta Balodis One of Greta's close friends from the Latvian club has a daughter who is a second year student nurse.

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Your secret santa is waiting with HD Grades. Solution Used Solution New Solution. Please wait Resend OTP. Buy Now.The patient is a year-old white female presenting to the emergency department with acute onset shortness of breath.

Symptoms began approximately 2 days before and had progressively worsened with no associated, aggravating, or relieving factors noted. She had similar symptoms approximately 1 year ago with an acute, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD exacerbation requiring hospitalization.

She uses BiPAP ventilatory support at night when sleeping and has requested to use this in the emergency department due to shortness of breath and wanting to sleep. She denies fever, chills, cough, wheezing, sputum production, chest pain, palpitations, pressure, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

She does report difficulty breathing at rest, forgetfulness, mild fatigue, feeling chilled requiring blankets, increased urinary frequency, incontinence, and swelling in her bilateral lower extremities that is new onset and worsening.

case study on cardiovascular system study

Subsequently, she has not ambulated from bed for several days except to use the restroom due to feeling weak, fatigued, and short of breath. There are no known ill contacts at home. Her family history includes significant heart disease and prostate malignancy in her father. Social history is positive for smoking tobacco use at 30 pack years. She quit smoking 2 years ago due to increasing shortness of breath.

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She denies all alcohol and illegal drug use. There are no known foods, drugs, or environmental allergies. Past medical history is significant for coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, COPD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, tobacco usage, and obesity.

Past surgical history is significant for an appendectomy, cardiac catheterization with stent placement, hysterectomy, and nephrectomy. Her current medications include Breo Ellipta mcg inhaled daily, hydralazine 50 mg by mouth, 3 times per day, hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg by mouth daily, Duo-Neb inhaled q4 hr PRN, levothyroxine mcg by mouth daily, metformin mg by mouth twice per day, nebivolol 5 mg by mouth daily, aspirin 81 mg by mouth daily, vitamin D3 units by mouth daily, clopidogrel 75 mg by mouth daily, isosorbide mononitrate 60 mg by mouth daily, and rosuvastatin 40 mg by mouth daily.

Initial physical exam reveals temperature Well-developed and well-nourished with BiPAP in place. Lying on a hospital stretcher under 3 blankets. Patient barely able to finish a full sentence due to shortness of breath. Bowel sounds are normal. No distension and no tenderness. Neurologic : Alert, awake, able to protect her airway. Moving all extremities. No sensation losses. Initial evaluation to elucidate the source of dyspnea was performed and included CBC to establish if an infectious or anemic source was present, CMP to review electrolyte balance and review renal function, and arterial blood gas to determine the PO2 for hypoxia and any major acid-base derangement, creatinine kinase and troponin I to evaluate presence of myocardial infarct or rhabdomyolysis, brain natriuretic peptide, ECG, and chest x-ray.

Considering that it is winter and influenza is endemic in the community, a rapid influenza assay was obtained as well. Showed creatinine elevation above baseline from 1. EGFR at 28 is consistent with the chronic renal disease. Calcium was elevated to However, when corrected for albumin this corrected to 9.

Initial arterial blood gas with pH 7. Creatinine kinase was elevated along with serial elevated troponin I studies. In the setting of her known chronic renal failure, and in the setting of acute injury indicated by the above creatinine value, a differential of rhabdomyolysis is set. Normal sinus rhythm with non-specific ST changes in inferior leads. Findings: Bibasilar airspace disease that may represent alveolar edema.

Cardiomegaly noted. Prominent interstitial markings noted. Small bilateral pleural effusions.Like the bustling factory, the body must have a transportation system to carry its various cargos back and forth, and this is where the cardiovascular system steps in.

The cardiovascular system can be compared to a muscular pump equipped with one-way valves and a system of large and small plumbing tubes within which the blood travels. The heart muscle has three layers and they are as follows:. The heart is equipped with four valves, which allow blood to flow in only one direction through the heart chambers. Although the heart chambers are bathed with blood almost continuously, the blood contained in the heart does not nourish the myocardium.

Blood circulates inside the blood vessels, which form a closed transport system, the so-called vascular system. Except for the microscopic capillaries, the walls of the blood vessels have three coats or tunics.

The major branches of the aorta and the organs they serve are listed next in sequence from the heart. Finally, the aorta passes through the diaphragm into the abdominopelvic cavity, where it becomes the abdominal aorta. Veins draining into the superior vena cava are named in a distal-to-proximal direction; that is, in the same direction the blood flows into the superior vena cava.

The inferior vena cava, which is much longer than the superior vena cava, returns blood to the heart from all body regions below the diaphragm. As the heart beats or contracts, the blood makes continuous round trips- into and out of the heart, through the rest of the body, and then back to the heart- only to be sent out again.

The spontaneous contractions of the cardiac muscle cells occurs in a regular and continuous way, giving rhythm to the heart. In a healthy heart, the atria contract simultaneously, then, as they start to relax, contraction of the ventricles begin.

Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out by each side of the heart in one minute. It is the product of the heart rate and the stroke volume. Arterial pulse pressure and blood pressure measurements, along with those of respiratory rate and body temperature, are referred to collectively as vital signs in clinical settings. The right and left sides of the heart work together in achieving a smooth flowing blood circulation. All questions are given in a single page and correct answers, rationales or explanations if any are immediately shown after you have selected an answer.

No time limit for this exam. Text Mode: All questions and answers are given on a single page for reading and answering at your own pace.

Be sure to grab a pen and paper to write down your answers. Specialized cell membrane structures that decrease electrical resistance between the cells allowing action potentials to pass efficiently from one cell to adjacent cells are the:. Extensive capillary network B. Intercalated disks C. Mitochondria D. Gap junctions. They directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells.

A: Extensive capillary networks allows abundant supply of oxygen and nutrients on tissues such as skeletal muscle, liverand kidney. They occur at the Z-line of the sarcomere and can be visualized easily when observing a longitudinal section of the tissue.

Complete the diagram so that it will show the correct route of blood in the heart.

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